The existential loneliness questionnaire is a scale that was designed by Mayers and validated by Mayers, Svartberg and Khoo. If you are interested in using this scale for your research please contact Aviva Mayers, ELQ Measures. (Mayers, A. M., Svartberg, M., and Khoo, S-T. (2002). The Existential Loneliness Questionnaire: Background, Development, and Preliminary Findings. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 58 (9), 1183-1193.